Namba Protonic NanoMachine Project
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Movement of the bacterial flagellum

The flagellar bundle with CCW helix rotate CCW direction to swim around. Each flagellum is 20nm in diameter but over ten thousand nm in length.

Movement of Salmonella (dark field observation).
Salmonella swims straightly and tumbles frequently to change the swimming direction. Insert shows the trace of the bacterial swimming.

When it tumbles, rotation direction revers within 1ms.
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Tetherd cell experiment.
A flagellum of a cell is fixed on the slide glass then cell body rotates.

Namba Protonic NanoMachine Project, ERATO