Pattern Formation Group
Osaka Univ. Faculty of Frontia Bioscience

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Simulation Programs (to download, just click the labyrinth pattern)

 reaction-diffusion simulator for windows Vista (much faster): This program calculates the original Turing's equation

 reaction-diffusion simulator for XP (or older OS): This program calculates the original Turing's equation

 reaction-diffusion simulator for XP (or older OS) :This program calculates four famous types of RD models; GM model, Schnakenberg model, GS model and oregonator.


Pigment pattern formation by contact-dependent depolarization.
Inaba M, Yamanaka H, Kondo S.
Science. 2012 Feb 10;335(6069):677.

In vitro imaging of pigment cells. xanthophore touches melanophore with short dendrites, which induced depolarization of melanophore.

Changing clothes easily: connexin41.8 regulates skin pattern variation.
Watanabe M, Kondo S.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012 Feb 7. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-148X.2012.00984.x.

By changing the activity of cx418(responsible gene of leopard mutation), we made variety of the skin patterns seen in wild life.

Periodic stripe formation by a Turing mechanism operating at growth zones in the mammalian palate.
Economou AD, Ohazama A, Porntaveetus T, Sharpe PT, Kondo S, Basson MA, Gritli-Linde A, Cobourne MT, GreenJB.
Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 19;44(3):348-51. doi: 10.1038/ng.1090.
In this paper, Kondo did the simulation of palate pattern formation.

Wing vein patterns of the Hemiptera insect Orosanga japonicus differ among individuals
Eiichi Yoshimoto and Shigeru Kondo*
Interface Focus 10.1098/​rsfs.2011.0112

Reaction-Diffusion Model as a Framework for Understanding Biological Pattern Formation
Kondo S., Miura T.
Science 329, 1616 (2010);DOI: 10.1126/science.1179047

A short review explaing the essence of Turing mechansim very plainly. This is written especially for the people who are not familiar to the mathematical papers

Blending of animal colour patterns by hybridization.
Miyazawa S, Okamoto M, Kondo S.

Nat Commun. 2010 Sep;1(6):doi:10.1038/ncomms1071

Some animals have white spots on thier skin, and some other animals have black spots. Imagine the skin of the hybrid.
The Turing model predicts that the hybrid should have labyrinthine pattern. The experiment explored
with the trout family proved that the prediction is correct.

How animals get their skin patterns: fish pigment pattern as a live Turing wave.
Kondo S, Iwashita M, Yamaguchi M.
Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53(5-6):851-6. Review.
A short review explaining the experimental evidences suggesting the fish skin pattern is the Turing wave.

Interactions between zebrafish pigment cells responsible for the generation of Turing patterns.

Nakamasu A, Takahashi G, Kanbe A, Kondo S.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 26;106(21):8429-34. Epub 2009 May 11.

Using the micropoint laser system, Akiko Nakamasu erased the pigment cells in the zebrafish skin and observed the regeneration of them. Depending on the neighbouring cells remaining around the eraced area, timing and the number of the re-developing cells differes dramatically, which suggested the interaction network among the pigment cells those form the pigment pattern. The deduced network satisfy the essential conditions for generating the Turing pattern. 

Theoretical analysis of mechanisms that generate the pigmentation pattern of animals.

Kondo S, Shirota H.

Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Feb;20(1):82-9. Epub 2008 Oct 19. Review.
This paper explains the Tips to generate variety of 2D patterns by RD simulation.

Melanophores in the stripes of adult zebrafish do not have the nature to gather, but disperse when they have the space to move
Takahashi G and Kondo S
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2009, 21; 677–686

Pattern regulation in the stripe of zebrafish suggests an underlying dynamic and autonomous mechanism.

Yamaguchi M, Yoshimoto E, Kondo S.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 20;104(12):4790-3. Epub 2007 Mar 12.

Stripes of zebrafish move in the way the Turing theory predicts.

Pigment pattern in jaguar/obelix zebrafish is caused by a Kir7.1 mutation: implications for the regulation of melanosome movement.
Iwashita M, Watanabe M, Ishii M, Chen T, Johnson SL, Kurachi Y, Okada N, Kondo S.
PLoS Genet. 2006 Nov 24;2(11):e197.

Spot pattern of leopard Danio is caused by mutation in the zebrafish connexin41.8 gene.

Watanabe M, Iwashita M, Ishii M, Kurachi Y, Kawakami A, Kondo S, Okada N.

EMBO Rep. 2006 Sep;7(9):893-7. Epub 2006 Jul 14.

This and above paper report the cloning of the zebrafish mutant genes responsible for the stripe pattern formation. Regardless of our expaction, these genes code the channels, suggesting that the signaling molecule of the Turing mechanism may be some small chemicals ??

Noise-resistant and synchronized oscillation of the segmentation clock.
Horikawa K, Ishimatsu K, Yoshimoto E, Kondo S, Takeda H.

Nature. 2006 Jun 8;441(7094):719-23
In this paper, our labo did the simulation of the experimantal results obteined in the Takeda`s group.
see Takeda's HP

Pigment cell distributions in different tissues of the zebrafish, with special reference to the striped pigment pattern.
Hirata M, Nakamura K, Kondo S.

Dev Dyn. 2005 Oct;234(2):293-300.

Traveling stripes on the skin of a mutant mouse.

Suzuki N, Hirata M, Kondo S.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 19;100(17):9680-5. Epub 2003 Jul 31.

Do you know mice develop stripes that travels on the skin? This paper describes the discoverly of the strange phenomenon.

Stripes, spots, or reversed spots in two-dimensional Turing systems.
Shoji H, Iwasa Y, Kondo S.
J Theor Biol. 2003 Oct 7;224(3):339-50.

Pigment cell organization in the hypodermis of zebrafish.
Hirata M, Nakamura K, Kanemaru T, Shibata Y, Kondo S.
Dev Dyn. 2003 Aug;227(4):497-503.

Origin of directionality in the fish stripe pattern.

Shoji H, Mochizuki A, Iwasa Y, Hirata M, Watanabe T, Hioki S, Kondo S.

Dev Dyn. 2003 Apr;226(4):627-33.

This paper investigates the origine of the stripe directionality. By analysing the pattern change of two tropical fish during their sex change, we concluded that the diffusion directionalty made by the scales is the key of the angle of the stripe running.

The reaction-diffusion system: a mechanism for autonomous pattern formation in the animal skin.

Kondo S.

Genes Cells. 2002 Jun;7(6):535-41. Review.

Directionality of stripes formed by anisotropic reaction-diffusion models.

Shoji H, Iwasa Y, Mochizuki A, Kondo S.

J Theor Biol. 2002 Feb 21;214(4):549-61.

Zebrafish leopard gene as a component of the putative reaction-diffusion system.

Asai R, Taguchi E, Kume Y, Saito M, Kondo S.

Mech Dev. 1999 Dec;89(1-2):87-92.

A reaction-diffusion wave on the skin of the marine angelfish Pomacanthus
Kondo S, Arai R

Nature,1995;376, 765 - 768

This paper is the first observation of the dynamic movement of fish pigment pattern, which impress the involvement of Turing waves even to the people who are very skeptic to the mathematical model. Our research started from this discoverly.

A mechanistic model for morphogenesis and regeneration of limbs and imaginal discs.

Kondo S.

Mech Dev. 1992 Dec;39(3):161-70.