Osaka Univ. Faculty of Frontia Bioscience
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Simulation Programs (to download, just click the
for windows Vista (much faster): This program calculates the original Turing's
for XP (or older OS): This program calculates the original Turing's
for XP (or older OS) :This program calculates four famous types of RD models;
GM model, Schnakenberg model, GS model and oregonator.
Pigment pattern formation by contact-dependent
Yamanaka H, Kondo S.
Science. 2012 Feb 10;335(6069):677.
imaging of pigment cells. xanthophore touches melanophore with short
dendrites, which induced depolarization of
Changing clothes easily: connexin41.8 regulates skin
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2012 Feb 7. doi:
By changing the activity of cx418(responsible gene of
leopard mutation), we made variety of the skin patterns seen in wild
Periodic stripe formation by a Turing mechanism operating
at growth zones in the mammalian palate.
Ohazama A, Porntaveetus T, Sharpe PT, Kondo S, Basson MA, Gritli-Linde A,
Cobourne MT, GreenJB.
- Nat Genet. 2012 Feb 19;44(3):348-51. doi:
In this paper, Kondo did the simulation of palate pattern
Wing vein patterns of the Hemiptera insect Orosanga
japonicus differ among individuals
Eiichi Yoshimoto and Shigeru Kondo*
Reaction-Diffusion Model as a Framework for Understanding
Biological Pattern Formation
Kondo S., Miura
Science 329, 1616
A short review explaing the essence of Turing
mechansim very plainly. This is written especially for the people who are not
familiar to the mathematical papers
Blending of animal colour patterns by
Miyazawa S, Okamoto M, Kondo
Nat Commun. 2010
Some animals have white spots on thier skin, and some
other animals have black spots. Imagine the skin of the hybrid.
The Turing model predicts that the hybrid should have
labyrinthine pattern. The experiment explored with the trout family proved that
the prediction is correct.
How animals get their skin
patterns: fish pigment pattern as a live Turing wave.
Iwashita M, Yamaguchi M.
Int J Dev
Biol. 2009;53(5-6):851-6. Review.
A short review explaining the experimental evidences
suggesting the fish skin pattern is the Turing
Interactions between zebrafish pigment cells responsible for the
generation of Turing patterns.
Takahashi G, Kanbe A, Kondo S.
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May
26;106(21):8429-34. Epub 2009 May 11.
Using the micropoint
laser system, Akiko Nakamasu erased the pigment cells in the zebrafish skin and
observed the regeneration of them. Depending on the neighbouring cells remaining
around the eraced area, timing and the number of the re-developing cells
differes dramatically, which suggested the interaction network among the pigment
cells those form the pigment pattern. The deduced network satisfy the
essential conditions for generating the Turing
Theoretical analysis of mechanisms that generate the pigmentation
pattern of animals.
Kondo S, Shirota
Semin Cell Dev
Biol. 2009 Feb;20(1):82-9. Epub 2008 Oct 19.
This paper explains the Tips to generate variety of 2D
patterns by RD simulation.
in the stripes of adult zebrafish do not have the nature to gather, but disperse
when they have the space to move
Takahashi G and Kondo S
Cell Melanoma Res. 2009, 21; 677–686
Pattern regulation in the stripe of
zebrafish suggests an underlying dynamic and autonomous
Yamaguchi M, Yoshimoto E, Kondo S.
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar
20;104(12):4790-3. Epub 2007 Mar 12.Iwashita M, Watanabe M, Ishii M, Chen T, Johnson SL,
Kurachi Y, Okada N, Kondo S.
zebrafish move in the way the Turing theory predicts.
Pigment pattern in jaguar/obelix zebrafish is caused by a Kir7.1
mutation: implications for the regulation of melanosome
PLoS Genet. 2006 Nov
Spot pattern of leopard Danio
is caused by mutation in the zebrafish connexin41.8
Iwashita M, Ishii M, Kurachi Y, Kawakami A, Kondo S, Okada
EMBO Rep. 2006 Sep;7(9):893-7. Epub 2006 Jul
This and above
paper report the cloning of the zebrafish mutant genes responsible for the
stripe pattern formation. Regardless of our expaction, these genes code the
channels, suggesting that the signaling molecule of the Turing mechanism may be
some small chemicals ??
synchronized oscillation of the segmentation
Horikawa K, Ishimatsu K, Yoshimoto E, Kondo S, Takeda
Nature. 2006 Jun
In this paper, our labo did the simulation of
the experimantal results obteined in the Takeda`s group.
distributions in different tissues of the zebrafish, with special reference to
the striped pigment pattern.
Hirata M, Nakamura K, Kondo S.
Dyn. 2005 Oct;234(2):293-300.
Traveling stripes on the skin of a mutant
Suzuki N, Hirata
M, Kondo S.
Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug
19;100(17):9680-5. Epub 2003 Jul
Do you know mice
develop stripes that travels on the skin? This paper describes the discoverly of
the strange phenomenon.
Stripes, spots, or reversed spots in
two-dimensional Turing systems.
Shoji H, Iwasa Y, Kondo
J Theor Biol.
2003 Oct 7;224(3):339-50.
Pigment cell organization in the hypodermis of
Hirata M, Nakamura K, Kanemaru T, Shibata Y, Kondo
Origin of directionality in the fish stripe
H, Mochizuki A, Iwasa Y, Hirata M, Watanabe T, Hioki S, Kondo S.
Dyn. 2003 Apr;226(4):627-33.
This paper investigates the origine of the stripe directionality.
By analysing the pattern change of two tropical fish during their sex change, we
concluded that the diffusion directionalty made by the scales is the key of
the angle of the stripe running.
The reaction-diffusion system: a mechanism for autonomous pattern
formation in the animal skin.
Cells. 2002 Jun;7(6):535-41.
Directionality of stripes formed by anisotropic
H, Iwasa Y, Mochizuki A, Kondo S.
J Theor Biol. 2002 Feb
Zebrafish leopard gene as a component of the putative
Taguchi E, Kume Y, Saito M, Kondo S.
Mech Dev. 1999
A reaction-diffusion wave on the skin of the marine angelfish Pomacanthus
Kondo S, Arai
|Nature,1995;376, 765 -
This paper is the first observation of the dynamic
movement of fish pigment pattern, which impress the involvement of Turing
waves even to the people who are very skeptic to the mathematical model.
Our research started from this
A mechanistic model for morphogenesis and regeneration of limbs
and imaginal discs.
Mech Dev. 1992