COE Study Abroad Project Report

 

Meeting report on the participation of Keystone symposia(U.S.A.)

Masaki Tanaka, Master's course student



Report on the participation of Keystone symposia

A keystone symposium is the international conference for discussions and presentations of frontier science and consists of several sessions each year. My participated sessions g Type 2 diabetes g and g Obesity g were held in Keystone, Colorado, from 1/27 to 2/4.
Type 2 diabetes affects more than 120 million people worldwide and the number is expected to at least double over the next 10 years. In Europe, 5-10% of the adult population have diabetes. In the United States, diabetes is the sixth highest cause of death by disease, with an estimated 16 million Americans affected. The incidence rates in many countries in the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, South East Asia and South America are considerably higher than in Europe and North America, and in some cases are reaching epidemic levels. Much research efforts by both basic and clinical scientists have successfully utilized the technologies of mouse genetics, experimental model systems, genomics, and proteomics as well as the traditional tools of physiology and molecular and cell biology to yield exciting new insights into this disease.
Obesity is strongly linked with type 2 diabetes but it also impacts on many other diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease. Obesity is one of the fastest growing epidemics in the world, affecting both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that the costs of obesity represent approximately 6-8% of the direct healthcare budgets of developed countries. Obesity is not simply a matter of overeating; understanding obesity involves understanding the interaction of genes and diet and the complex neuroendocrine matrix that regulates energy balance.
In these symposia, the presentation relating to my area of interest is Obesity and Adipose Tissue Macrophage. Obesity induces inflammatory change in adipose tissue characterized by the overproduction of pro-inflammatory molecules and the accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages. Adipose tissue of obese animals over produces several ligands for the chemokine receptor 2 ( CCR-2 ) , including macrophage chemoattractant proteins-1, -2 and -3. CCR-2 signaling is necessary for macrophage recruitment in clinically important inflammatory disorders. They studied that effect of genetic Ccr-2 deficiency on macrophage accumulation and gene expression in adipose tissue and suggested that CCR-2 possibility via stimulation of adipose tissue macrophages accumulation contributes to the inflammatory and metabolic derangements associated with obesity.
I think that I should learn Immunology. The reason is that Immunity has relation to the other field and until recently little date demonstrates relationship between macrophages to adipocytes. In these symposia, a relationship between adipocytes to macrophages is demonstrated. I think the other immunocytes also connect to adipocytes. I want to reveal this relationship.
Finally, I express my gratitude to the COE financial support for this trip.